Category Archives: Money

Business 101: Meet Yaya Ne

Who is Yaya Ne?

Yaya and me
Yaya and I (1966)

Yaya Ne (short for Nelly) was a woman who at the age of 18, came to work for our family as a stay in Yaya, before my eldest brother was born in the early 1960’s.  She still lives with our family to this day.

Any Filipino would need no further explanation about yayas, but for the benefit of non-Filipinos, let me explain what a yaya is. A Yaya is the rough equivalent of a nanny.  They are hired to watch and care for the children. Yayas are indispensable when both parents are working and there is no other adult family member to provide care for the children while parents are at work. Both my parents worked full-time, hence we had a yaya, Yaya Ne, or simply Yaya.  Now why would any of this matter if I was going to talk about business basics, anyway? Well because Yaya is a successful business owner.

A Short Bio

Yaya was born in Tinatayan, Capiz as Nelly Hijastro in December 1942, about a year into the Philippine war with Japan.  She was the youngest of 7 children, 2 boys and 5 girls. She graduated from the 6th grade with honors,  after which she had to drop out of school for lack of funds. At a very early age her left hand was injured when she accidentally burned it in a boiling pot of water. Home remedy left the hand permanently disfigured.

Yaya helped out with the farm work which was her family’s main source of livelihood. She recalls memories of her father, after working the rice fields, would take off to peddle goods in the neighboring towns, determined to make ends meet.  Then her father died when she was seven. Life was hard, she tells me, sometimes it got very hard. She said there were times after a typhoon, there would be so little to eat and no one could help them out because everyone would all be in the same situation.  She wanted to go to school, but her mother, a widow left with 7 kids could hardly feed her brood let alone put 7 children to school. School was a luxury that Yaya would have to give up.   And the only hope she knew of ever escaping this kind of poverty was to find a job in Manila.  She longed for a better life nothing more.  Yaya was girl with a very simple dream.

In 1961, her friend from the same town wrote her to say that an employer was looking for a yaya. She jumped at the chance. She borrowed money for boat-fare and came to Manila with her elder sister. At 17 years old, she started working with her first employer where she stayed for only a few months. Then she came to work with our family. She can’t help but weep as she recalls her feelings when she finally left her home for good, to claim a better life. Although this is not what most people would aspire for these days, it was all she could ever hope for.

Her life took a rapid turn for the better.  She was trained to care for a newly born infant by a midwife.  She took this task to heart.  And for the first time she was guaranteed adequate food and a steady source of income. Not having to worry about food anymore, she spent her money on her own clothes, something she never had before. Then she started collecting household wares and used clothing to send home. She seemed to have made it her mission to remove her family from the state of poverty she grew up with. She became a bit of a folk hero back home, because she was always sending relatives stuff and lending them money to get by. She also religiously put aside money as savings which she never touched. Later this little fortune she set aside would allow her to buy property, build her house and start her business.

All throughout her life after she started working for us, she never left our family except for short vacations. She was, in fact, considered family. And in a sweet assuming way she treated us as her children; scolding, disciplining, guiding, teaching, feeding, bathing, soothing, caring and loving with a dedication of a parent. With both our parents holding full-time jobs, Yaya filled in for the much-needed and appreciated attention.  She never married.  She never seemed to aspire for marriage. It seems that she had found her calling in her work, which she did with extreme diligence and a flawless work ethic.

Why Yaya started a business

Probably like anyone else who thinks about starting a business, Yaya thought a little more money could be a really good thing. The owner of the property her family had lived on  offered to sell her the property on installment. She had been paying a small sum diligently for a while by then and the added income could allow her to pay it up faster.  Or it could have been just a stroke of insight. She had saved up some money and wanted to do something with it. At this point, if you ask her she won’t really give you any reason other than that she just wanted to try it out. And it turns out, it really was a good idea.

How Yaya Started her Business

A tiny customer
A tiny customer

Yaya asked my parents if she could start selling little things, like candy, biscuits and cigarettes.  She said she could finish her work, which was at that time to cook and clean the house.  My parents agreed to have her try it out.  From that seed business, it grew to a whole full-blown store within about a year. My Mom was not too crazy about the expansion, but the rest of the family was in consensus that we should allow it anyway with some conditions of course. She converted the back part of our house into a hole-in-the-wall store where she sells practically everything her customers might need (except for liquor which my Mom is adamant against).

The Basic Lesson in Business

  1. Find a business you can run.  Yaya knew everything she needed to know to run a backyard store. A store is a fairly simple business if you run it the simple way she did. She needed a place, she had one, the back area of our house.  She needed her stocks which can be bought at any grocery.  She had the capital. Yaya was pretty sure she had the customers.  And finally, she made the time to get this all up and running. She started small and grew it incrementally.
  2. Build your capital to start a business.  In Yaya’s case, she was a compulsive saver. So over time she had accumulated more than enough capital to start a micro business. Your income, however small, is a perfect wealth (or capital) building tool. If you follow a disciplined habit of saving a portion of any income you receive from any source (not less than 10%), you will be able to build your wealth. The critical thing here is, it has to be a habit. Put away your savings first, before you spend for anything else. Then do not use your savings for anything other than investments.
  3. Use your money to grow your money.  Although, there are countless ways to grow your money through various investment vehicles, Yaya followed a very simple formula. Buy goods at a lower price and sell them at a higher price.  This is the principle at the heart of any merchandising business. It doesn’t matter at what price you buy your merchandise, if you can sell it at a price higher than the price you bought it, you will make money. Think about it, candies bought in large packs would cost about P0.25 to P0.50 each. If she can sell them for P1 each individually, you will get back 2 to 3 times what you spent.  For every P1 you spend, you earn back P2 to P4 or 100%-300% profit. It doesn’t seem like much at that scale, but if project that peso to say, P1,000, it means you can get back P2,000 to P4,000 from the sale of candies alone. That’s up to P3,000 additional money you didn’t have before. You can scale this amount up or down as you please.  It is that simple.
  4. Harness the power of compounding. Let’s use a different product this time.  You can get a dealers price for cola at P4.33 per bottle (or P104 for a case of 24) and you can sell it at P8 each (or P192 per case).  That is an 85% margin.  These are actual current figures. So if you buy 10 cases of cola worth P1,040 and sell all 240 bottles at P8 each, you would get back a total of P1,920 (plus P48 not yet spent). If you reinvest that entire amount on the same item and sell it at  the P8 selling price, you can now buy 18 cases at P1,872 and sell them again still at P8 each. Then you will now have P3,504 (P3,456+P48).  As you keep repeating the cycle your money grows very rapidly. Please see the table below.
Cycle Quantity  Cost  Revenue  Cash Margin
Case Bottles  Cost/ Case  Cost/ Bottle  Total Cost  Rev/ Case  Rev/ Bottle  Total Revenues
1st 10 240  104.00    4.33     1,040.00   192.00    8.00     1,920.00 85%
2nd 18 432  104.00    4.33     1,872.00   192.00    8.00     3,456.00   48.00 85%
3rd 33 792  104.00    4.33     3,432.00   192.00    8.00     6,384.00   24.00 86%
4th 61 1,464  104.00    4.33     6,344.00   192.00    8.00   11,736.00   40.00 85%
5th 112 2,688  104.00    4.33   11,648.00   192.00    8.00   21,544.00   88.00 85%
6th 207 4,968  104.00    4.33   21,528.00   192.00    8.00   39,832.00   16.00 85%
7th 383 9,192  104.00    4.33   39,832.00   192.00    8.00   73,552.00         – 85%

As you can see by the 7th cycle, what started as P1,040 is now worth P73,552.00.  That is a total net profit of P72,512.  And theoretically, you could continue to increase this number indefinitely, for as long as you can continue to sell the product within its lifespan and you have enough space to store your stock.  Your money can keep growing at this rate. This is a very simplified model of the business.  It was presented in this sanitized manner only to illustrate the earning potential of the system.  You will need to tweak the system a bit to accommodate your special set of circumstances.

The calculations  presented will be true only under the following assumptions

Just to clarify the conditions that need to be present for you to realize the same profits, I have listed down the assumptions necessary to achieve the indicated earnings, as well as the possible real-life situations that might occur to invalidate the assumptions and how these situations might affect the level of earnings.

  1. One cycle starts when you buy your first batch of products and ends when you sell all the products from that batch. In a real world scenario though, you would buy your 2nd batch of products before your 1st batch runs out. So your actual  2nd batch might not be as large as the figure in the table and the earnings from your business will not look so neat.
  2. You only sell one variant of a single product. The example shows a single product to make the illustration easier to understand. But it rarely ever happens that a merchandising business will only carry one product in a single variant. Often times a business will carry numerous products in a several variants.  Margins may differ from product to product and from variant to variant depending on several factors like competitor pricing, customer demand, other value added services like credit and delivery which might drive up your cost. If you carry other products and/ or variants your average margin across all products may be higher or lower than 85%.
  3. You continue to buy the product at the same price all throughout the 7 cycles.  Most dealers will give you a better price as you increase the size of your order. So if your cost per product goes down, provided you sell at the same price, your revenue will be bigger that those shown. On the other hand, suppliers may also increase their prices for one reason or another. When they do, if you can pass on the increase to your customers, you can continue to earn at the same profits but your costs will have to be adjusted higher and your capital might afford a smaller inventory.
  4. You continue to sell at the same price all throughout the 7 cycles. As your income/ inventory grows, you might decide to drop your price, to sell your inventory faster. If you do decide to drop your price per item your revenue will be smaller per cycle. But if you can complete a cycle faster, you can realize your profits sooner and your actual earning might be larger over a given period of time.
  5. You plow back all your profits into the business.  The quickest way to expand your business/ money is to keep plowing back all your earnings into your business until you reach your target level of income. This is not realistic for some people who will need to draw some money from the business. If you withdraw a portion of your profits, your business will grow slower, but it will still grow. If you withdraw all your profits your income will stay fixed at the same level.  If you start drawing from your capital you business will shrink or disappear altogether.
  6. You will be providing your own labor. If you will be the one to personally run the business your profits will be the compensation for your labor. If you have to hire someone to handle the work of ordering, selling and any other work you might want to pass on, you will need to add an expense item which is the cost of hiring this person. This will mean less revenues and likewise a slower growth especially at the early stages of the business. It is not advisable to hire anyone until you reach a certain level of inventory or revenue. When revenues/ inventories are high enough, it can easily sustain the cost of having employees.  Take note, labor cost will eat into your profits so they need to be factored in when computing for margins.
  7. Pilferage, breakage and spoilage rate is 0%.  This is a fact of business that will always occur.  You will need to protect your stocks from pilfering (theft in unnoticeable amounts), breaking and spoiling. When your stock (or cash) is stolen, lost, broken or spoiled, you can no longer earn income from them, and that will mean lost inventory and profit. This factor will lower your income, so you will need to keep it at the barest minimum.
  8. This is simple merchandising, buy and sell products as is and all in cash transactions. Over time you might want to venture into adding value to your service like selling the drinks cold, extending credit to cash strapped customers or delivering but these will all have an added cost or risk which will drive your cost higher. You will want to consider adding them to your service at some point because it does attract additional customers and again you will have to factor in their costs when computing for your margins.  But anything that increases sales is generally a good thing.

To Sum it all Up

Yaya and the Next Generation
Yaya and the Next Generation

Yaya is still living with us to this day and she is still running her store with the help of her niece who also currently lives in our home.  She owns an 800 sq m lot with a concrete 2-story house which she had built many years ago in her home town.  Her nephew is taking care of that property.  She helped several of her nieces and nephews thru school. One of them was her full scholar thru a 5-year engineering course.  Yaya is a philanthropist at heart, who could never turn down someone in need.

She is semi-retired as our Yaya, but she still cooks and does some light cleaning on her own insistence.  On a really good day after watching an episode of the local Junior Master Chef TV show, she would surprise us with one of her special concoctions, a real treat.  She also has her regular staples that no restaurant cooking can ever match, like her Sinigang and her fried chicken, a favorite of guests who are familiar with her cooking.  She’ll be turning 70 this year.  All in all, I would say she is pretty successful, wouldn’t you?

In closing, I would like to point out, that here is a woman who barely finished her 6th grade and yet she managed to pull herself out of near starvation, helped her many relatives acquire an education which she never got herself, bought her home lot and built her house.  With sheer discipline, perseverance, patience and good old common sense, she changed her life and the lives of many others for the better.

So trust me when I say, there is no excuse for failure or a bad life.  It may start out that way or get that way at some point but trust that you will have everything you need to change it.  There is no hole so deep that you can’t climb out of it. Blaming your parents, your spouse, your children, your government, your boss, your employees or anyone else you can think of, will do nothing for you.  You take stock of what you have and what you know right now and start from there. When you make a mistake (and you will make them for sure), make it a point to learn from them or the lessons will be wasted on you.

Know what it is that you want and focus on that. Do not ever focus on things you fear or on the things you don’t want, otherwise you will spend your life fighting or running away.  Help others whenever you can, with whatever you can, and learn to enjoy giving freely.  Making the money is easy, it really is. What you do with that money is ultimately what defines the quality of your life.

Yaya the Business Woman
Yaya the Business Woman

Keep the Internet Free

We are one with the Web Black OutThere is a legal battle going on right now in the US legislature, that will attempt to control the fate of the Internet. On one side are the proponents of the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) and the Protect IP Act, who are dead set on legislating stringent online restrictions that will supposedly stop online piracy. On the other side there is the business sector and the public who are working to keep their Internet free from censorship. The final outcome precariously hangs on a balance.

Google Censored
Google Censored (

The Protect IP Act: Legalized Bullying

Many large companies, mainly from the entertainment industry, are making a really big fuss about Intellectual Property (IP) infringement.  Granted, there are clear-cut violations of IP rights occurring online (and otherwise) as there always have been, even before the rise of the Internet.  But as the debates heat up, the proposed measures to ‘protect’ IP have been progressively bizarre and excessive. These companies currently already have the power to take down specific content and sue companies that facilitate file sharing.  Yet, still unsatisfied with their assault on the corporate perpetrators, they use the same  legal penalties written for large-scale commercial piracy as an excuse to go after families and individuals who quite innocently use their content in everyday activities.

Enter the Protect IP Act, a law that is mutating into one humongous bully machine, giving the IP owners sweeping powers to censor virtually the entire internet domain. Although the expressed aim of this act is to prevent piracy, upon closer scrutiny, the actual expected impact on piracy will be minimal at best. The impact however, on free speech, social media and on online businesses is potentially disastrous.

The full text of the Protect IP Act draft can be viewed here. The following video explains Protect IP Act in summary.

The Internet is Everybody’s Business

You might say that this is a US law, and I’m not in the US so why even bother? Well as mentioned in the video, the very fact that, if this law is passed, these huge copyright owning companies will have the power to go after search engines, social media, hosting companies and pretty much all Internet users within reach in the US. Since a great chunk of the world’s users pass the US networks in one form or another, this means virtually no one can operate on the internet without their approval.

The people outside the US who can’t be reached directly, can still be censored by blocking their access to the US networks and cutting off their advertising revenue. The law doesn’t even require that the offence be repeated  or persistent, it only requires a single instance, for penalties to apply. Furthermore, the conveniently vague wordings of the Act allow for creative interpretation which can be tweaked to suit whatever purpose the IP owners fancy.  This eerily sounds like the ‘witch hunt’ of the Inquisition.

Protect IP Act
Legalized Bullying (

Ultimately, the Protect IP Act is not going to be about stopping piracy, although that is the press release. Piracy has been made the excuse to bully the entire internet public into paying the giant corporations more money simply because they feel they are entitled to it. The Protect IP Act is the linchpin that guarantees them that revenue. Or so they wished.

The trouble is, they are operating under  the mistaken notion that by bearing down on the Internet and all the activities therein they can actually recover ‘lost’ revenues. If passed, the bill is supposed to allow them to achieve this through one of two things: one, that IP owners can either get people to pay additional monies for the all the otherwise ‘illegal’ use of their products or two, sue someone, anyone for the revenues lost from the ‘illegal’ use of their products and claim damages. That they even believe that this law can actually protect their revenues is grossly absurd.  These IP owners might succeed in getting some people to pay. They might claim some damages from inadvertent conduits of piracy and maybe even shut some of them down. But then what next?  People are going to magically reform and start paying them more willingly and pirates will stop pirating? You think?

The Outrageous Use and Abuse of the Copyright Law

It’s one thing to go after piracy and it’s another thing to demand payment for singing among friends or posting personal video. This is just an example of how far this kind of bullying has gone.

Girl Scouts Singing
Girl Scouts Singing (

“In 1996, ASCAP decided that that since hotels, restaurants, funeral homes and resorts pay for the right to “perform” recorded music, and since many summer camps resemble resorts, why shouldn’t they [campers] pay too? Under copyright law, a public performance occurs “where a substantial number of persons outside of a normal circle of a family and its social acquaintances is gathered.” Like a summer camp.

After reportedly opening its negotiations with the American Camping Association with an offer of $1,200 per season per camp, ASCAP eventually settled on an average annual fee of $257. But once ASCAP‘s plan went public, and people learned that the Girl Scouts were among the 288 camps being dunned, the group beat a hasty and embarrassed retreat.” (source:

If the Girl Scouts had not been among these groups, this tactic might have gone unnoticed. But really this is not just about shaking down the Girl Scouts for a little more money so they will be allowed to do something they have done freely for years. It’s not even about piracy.  It’s about tracking us all down, and about making us all pay more money so we can enjoy their work. What the ASCAP fails to recognize is that all their member’s creations will be worthless without a following. This sort of mercenary zeal can turn an audience cold and seeking other less cumbersome creations to patronize. How long do they think they can they keep this up?

To cite an even more absurd quarrel over copyright, the book Brand Name Bullies recounts this incident:

Musical Staff

“A controversy over the sounds of silence began in 2002 when avant-garde composer Michael Batt performed “One Minute’s Silence,” which was exactly that. In the program notes for the performance, Batt decided to pay tribute to experimentalist composer John Cage, who in 1952 had pioneered a similar performance piece called ” 4’33”,” which was precisely four minutes and 33 seconds of silence. Batt also put “One Minute’s Silence” on his album, Classical Graffiti, performed by The Planets….

In the program notes for Batt’s performance, he listed the composers of “One Minute’s Silence” as “Batt/Cage.” He gave a credit to Cage “just for a laugh,” he later told the Independent of London. This attribution was sufficient, in the eyes of the Mechanical-Copyright Protection Society, the British agency that collects royalties for music performances, to demand payment. MCPS sent Batt its standard license form, seeking a royalty on behalf of Cage’s estate.”  (source:

Well folks, the dirty little secret is out. It really is all about the money and how it can best be pried out of unwilling hands by the so-called defenders of intellectual property. Because, can it really be about preventing online threats to economic creativity and theft of intellectual property? What self-respecting artist would go through all this extent just to earn more money from his own creations? The loss in goodwill, will severely jeopardize any future revenue.  In the end, how much of all this money wrangled in the process, really goes to compensating the artists? And how much creativity does it encourage if at all?  Seriously!

What Can We Do?

As a separate individual entity we might be powerless to change anything. However as part of a global community, we do have the power to uphold whatever we value as members of that same communities. We need to start standing as 1.  There are countless things we can do to create the changes we seek. Here are some of my suggestions:

  1. Speak Up.  For people in the US, you can write your congressmen to express your opposition to this law. Flood your legislators with messages that clearly make your stand against Protect IP, loud and clear.  For the rest of the world speak out on your walls, blogs and tweets that you are against this bill.  There is power in numbers, if everyone speaks up, we will be heard. Protect our freedom of speech. Protect the freedom of the internet,  (Demand Progress’ ‘Stop Censorship’ petition offers a sign up and be counted among those  opposing this act.)
  2. Take action.  Identify publicly the entities that have shown a propensity for this sort of bullying/ extortion, then totally withdraw all support for any of their products. Stay away from all their ‘intellectual property’. Don’t sing, play, watch, listen, dance or in any way interact with it. Don’t talk about it. Don’t write about it.  Don’t even think about it.   Let’s just leave them alone. It’s really not worth going to jail for. When people are made to pay more than a product’s true value, they start shopping around for a better deal.  We should do the same. There are many providers who; value your patronage and opinion, who would take the time to establish a direct and authentic relationships with their public. Let us instead, support the those who are true members of our community.
  3. Build stronger communities. Strong communities have high trust, commitment and collaboration which consequently leads to high contribution. In strong communities, people dialogue openly, share resources and collaborate to serve the common good.  Hostility and paranoia happen when there is no community to bind people together. Transactions between entities that have no social ties can easily turn suspicious and litigious; where each party views the other as an adversary and one can only win if the other loses. Oppressive measures like the Protect IP Act can only appear necessary and justified to an entity detached from the community it wants to control, as it renders only  its own rights superior and all other’s motives suspect.   The added advantage of strong communities is its ability to collectively protect against attempts to undermine established community dynamics.
  4. Support the Community. There are tons of awesome artists, inventors, developers, scientists and people in all sorts of occupations who will share their brilliance for the sake of their communities. We all need to do the same.  Since we all stand to benefit collectively from the bounty of our community, we must make our own contributions to the community in whatever capacity we can. The Japanese people have their priorities straight. That’s why they can recover from economic recessions and natural disasters with remarkable ease. Communities work best when everyone in it takes to heart his own responsibility as a member.  Sharing, respect and  consideration for others are values that forge strong communities.

Let’s keep our internet free. Speak up and let them hear us loud and clear. Whether this bill passes or not, we will still always have the power to change things. If they make it so cumbersome and costly for us to use their “property”, then we’ll just have to find a more suitable alternative. If the current system allows a minority to withhold resources from being used for the common good, then we will just have to change the system. The only thing that is required for us to pull this off, is that we all stand together. We need to stop being the 99% and start being the solid One.

In an Alternate Universe things are Different, Wonderfully Different

In the more enlightened parts of our world, there are industries that have become quite comfortable with the concept of sharing.  They have not just accepted it, they have actually embraced it as a philosophy. In a curious turn of events, these industries that openly ‘reuse’ each other’s designs manage to rapidly advance aesthetically and technologically. And the commercial bustle that follow in their wake lead them to advance economically as well.

Open Source
The genius of Open Source

A very clear trend tends to show that when designs are allowed to flow and mingle freely, innovation flourishes. The sheer volume of permutations that are unleashed on the market allows a rapid filtering of robust design features that get refined and integrated seamlessly into increasingly superior products. The availability of information on both the design successes and failures provide a huge knowledge base that designers can all draw from when developing their next designs.

This is the genius of ‘open source’. When players willingly surrender their knowledge into a knowledge pool that any player can access, all players are endowed with a much higher intelligence than if they had to go it alone. And since virtually no resources are spent on protecting or attempting to protect ‘intellectual property’, all resources can be effectively channelled into perfecting design. Securing permissions, paying for licensing fees and battling in courts for ownership rights slow down progress and drive up development costs. The proponents of open source simply decided to do away with all that.  The philosophy is simple: take what you need and give back what you can; in one word: “Share”.  Companies like Google, Facebook and the entire fashion industry live by this code and they have become richer for it.

Significantly lowered cost allow providers to make their product available at low costs or even free with limited features and/ or at the testing stage. This creates an enormous  amount of goodwill.  Users are more willing to forgive product flaws and give feedback about problems. Users also provide other users with reviews and recommendations that boost a product’s market share gratis.

Open source is an extremely potent development and economic strategy that not only translates into breakthrough designs but also into significantly larger revenues as well.  This can only happen in an uncensored free Internet.  In her Ted Talk, ‘Lessons from Fashion’s Free Culture”, Johanna Blakely points out the blatant disparity between the gross sales of low IP industries (Food, Automobiles and Fashion) against the high IP industries (Films, Books and Music). The software industry which was not included in her chart (below) made roughly *US$ 285 Billion for the same year, even exceeding that of the fashion industry.

Johanna Blakely's Chart
Johanna Blakely's Chart at Ted Talks

The ‘abundance’ that results from the sharing ethic, multiplies on many different levels. Design sharing attracts a bigger pool of designers that in turn expand the design the options in the market. All market segmentation have access to versions of the product that best addresses their need and price point pushing the market boundaries wider. The huge user base offer an extensive feedback source that provide clear direction towards the most viable industry trends and emerging markets. Users are also the source of varying levels and streams of revenue. The sharing paradigm encourages the highest possible engagement from its public. Trust and goodwill are the one of the most important by-product of sharing. And this is why they succeed, radically.

Watch Johanna Blakely’s Ted Talk: Lessons from Fashion’s Free Culture in the video below. (16:07 mins.)

Ironically, the Protect IP Act which purportedly seeks “to prevent online threats to economic creativity and theft of intellectual property“, may in fact be stifling economic creativity, if not killing it, while seriously antagonizing the community that the IP owners expect to earn their revenues from. The proposed choke-hold restrictions on the Internet could actually snuff out the very social media activities that creates the buzz for the IP protected products. On top of all that, it is still extremely doubtful that any of these measures could even mildly inhibit piracy.

Let’ keep out internet free. Do your part.  Everyone should get involved because the internet is our business.